Lee Merkhofer Consulting Priority Systems
Tools for Project Portfolio Management

Project Portfolio Management Tools:

Which Approach is Best?

Part 1: Tool Options

To survive and prosper in today's competitive, cost-conscious, and risky business environment, organizations must derive the greatest possible value from the projects that they conduct. Success requires doing the right projects, not just doing projects right.

As organizations recognize the need to improve project-selection decisions and to better manage their project "portfolios," consulting companies and software vendors have rushed to offer tools for the job. Most of the relevant products are marketed as tools for project portfolio management (PPM), but they may be alternatively described as tools for project prioritization, capital efficiency, enterprise project management, portfolio analysis, multi-project management, asset management, capital allocation, or some other collection of similar terms. The many tools being pushed in the marketplace use different approaches for evaluating projects and recommending project portfolios. Which approach is best?

Project Portfolio Management Tools

Many Tools:  Which Approach is Best?

This multi-part paper identifies and evaluates currently available PPM tools. As you will see, "caveat emptor"—let the buyer beware. Although many tools are described in marketing materials as being "state of the art" and "rigorous," few use well-established methods for project valuation or portfolio optimization.

Project Portfolio Management

I define PPM as a tool-supported process for selecting projects and managing project portfolios for the purpose of generating the greatest possible value. What do I mean by "value"? I define the value of a project (or portfolio) to be the worth to the organization of the project's (or portfolio's) consequences (the maximum amount the organization's executives would be willing to pay to obtain those consequences). Thus, for example, if Project A would produce consequences that executives believe are worth $100,000, the value of that project is $100,000. The cost of the project does not affect project value. However, if the cost of Project A is more than $100,000, the net value of the project would be negative, so the organization should always reject it.

Although some might criticize my definitions because it is difficult to determine what executives would pay for a project's (often uncertain) consequences, focusing on value has one overwhelming advantage; namely, project value maps exactly to executive preferences—If two projects A and B cost the same, executives will prefer Project A to Project B if and only if Project A consequences are worth more to those executives than Project B consequences. Also, as described later in this paper, practical methods are available for estimating project value.

Under PPM, new projects are formally evaluated, prioritized and selected; existing projects may be accelerated, slowed, or terminated; and resources are allocated and reallocated based on maximizing the value created. Properly conducted, PPM does not involve making project-by-project choices based on fixed acceptance criteria (such as NPV). Instead, decisions to add or subtract projects from the portfolio are based on the impact on the total value of the portfolio.

The fundamental idea underlying PPM is to apply to project decisions ways of thinking and investment optimization methods similar to those that have proven successful in the world of financial investing. This includes principles set forth by modern portfolio theory.

Modern Portfolio Theory

The revolution in financial investing known as modern portfolio theory was initiated in the 1950's by Nobel Prize winner Harry Markowitz. Markowitz showed that investors can obtain significantly greater return at lower risk if, instead of choosing stocks and other financial assets based on their individual potentials, they make choices based on calculating the impact on the risk and return generated by the portfolio as a whole. Certain combinations of investments (portfolios) are efficient (they lie on an "efficient frontier") in that they create the greatest possible value for the least risk. Inefficient portfolios should be avoided. Which of the efficient portfolios is best depends on the investor's risk tolerance; that is, willingness to accept risk in exchange for higher expected returns.

Harry Markowitz

What enabled Markowitz to make this breakthrough was a clear understanding of the investor's true goal; namely, to obtain the portfolio of investments that returns the greatest possible value, considering willingness to accept risk. This perspective led Markowitz to a different and much better strategy for selecting investments. Although Markowitz may not have anticipated it at the time, the same reasoning applies to organizations investing in projects. The organization's goal is to choose the project portfolio that creates the greatest possible (risk-adjusted) value for the organization. Likewise, this revised perspective leads to a much improved project-selection strategy.

Challenges for Optimizing the Project Portfolio

Despite the analogy between financial and project investing, there are some critical differences. Organizations conduct projects because they believe those projects will produce consequences that are good for the business. Thus, as argued above, the value of a project portfolio is determined by the worth, to the organization, of the consequences of conducting those projects. The business consequences of projects may include improved cash flows (e.g., cost savings, increases in revenue), but there are other common project benefits that cannot so readily be expressed in dollar terms. For example, projects may be conducted for the purpose of improving worker safety, customer service, relationships with business partners, and organizational capability.

Another key difference relates to uncertainty. The returns from financial investments and projects are both uncertain. However, unlike financial assets, data on past performance is generally not available to help quantify uncertainties over the value returned from candidate projects. Difficulties for measuring project value and quantifying uncertainty posed challenges for applying portfolio theory to projects.

The Remaining Breakthroughs

Los Alamos National Laboratory

Early PPM users

Since Markowitz's time, additional advancements and breakthroughs necessary for optimizing project portfolios have been achieved. These advances include infuence diagrams (for identifying factors infuencing the achievement of objectives), consequence modeling (for estimating or simulating the impact of project decisions on business performance); probability encoding (for obtaining probabilities based on judgments), Monte Carlo analysis and event trees (for quantifying uncertainty over project outcomes); and multi-attribute utility analysis, real options analysis, and risk tolerance (for quantifying the dollar value of projects and adjusting project value based on organizational willingness to accept risk).

The relevant methodologies still had to wait for improvements in computer technology and software engineering to become fully operational. Government laboratories, the military, research institutes, and others with early access to computing power and understanding of the mathematics involved have been selectively applying the techniques for years. However, only recently have suppliers attempted to create commercial products for PPM.

Project Portfolio Management Tools

Tools for PPM are evolving rapidly, and it is impossible to maintain a complete and up-to-date list of suppliers and capabilities. However, the table below provides a recent snapshot (January 2016) of available products that I have been able to identify. The number of tool options is truly staggering. As indicated, there are now more than 100 tools for PPM! (In addition, many project management tools are now claiming PPM functionality, but I don't include them in my list unless I can identify some support for project selection, prioritization or portfolio optimization.)

Software for Project Portfolio Management
(Click links to obtain information from suppliers)
Provider Product Focus
1000Minds 1000Minds Priortzng. projs. & people / group dec. making / New Zealand /web
3P Works Portfolio Intelligence Mid-sized firms, schools / schedlng., trackng., scoring, modular / USA / SaaS
4c Systems 4c Portfolio Manager General / project scoring / suite / UK / onsite
Algorithmics Algo Risk Financial institutions / cap. allocation, risk, market data / Canada / onsite
Antura Antura Projects Gen. / proj., port. & res. mgmnt., integrates w/ MS Sharepoint / Sweden / web
Artemis Artemis 7 IT, new prods., gov / proj. & resource management, scoring / Int'l / onsite, web
Atlassian Jira Portfolio IT / sched. & res. management, drag-and-drop ranking / Australia / onsite, web
Asta Powerproject Construction, tech, oil & gas, fin. services / proj. & res. mngmnt / UK / onsite
AtTask @Task Marketing, IT / proj. & res. mngmnt., workflow, suite / Int'l / SaaS
Augeo Software Augeo6™ PPM IT, prof. services, new products / proj. visibility & control / Europe / onsite, web
Automation Centre Project Tracker General / collaboration, Lotus & Microsoft Outlook based, suite / USA / web
Bestoutcome PM3 Retail, health, cost-reduction / value factor ratings; risk registers / UK / onsite
Bicore FlightMap New prods. / preconfigured & custom models / Netherlands / web, hosted
BMC Software IT Service Management IT / finance, governance, compliance, vendor mngmnt., suite / Int'l / onsite
BOT International Processes on Demand PMO General, gov / project management, templates, scoring / Int'l / SaaS
Bubble Group Innovator™ R&D, new prods. / enterprise multi-proj. mngmt., customizable / UK / web
CA Clarity PPM™ IT, new products / project & resource management, suite / Int'l / onsite, SaaS
CA PPM Meisterplan Gen. / multiproj. res. mngmt., proj. schedlng, scoring / Ger. USA / onsite, SaaS
Canea Canea Framework Gen. / proj. & resource planning, prioritization, suite / Sweden / on-site, web
Catalyze Equity3 General / budgeting, prioritization based on MCDA / UK, New Zealand / desktop
Clarizen Clarizen IT, prof. servs. / proj. & res. mngmt., email engine, status reporting / Int'l / SaaS
Conteno Innovation Games Online Gen., budgeting / proj prioritization, collaboration, gaming / USA / SaaS
Cogentus Smart Decisions Gen. / multicriteria prioritization, sensitivity analysis / UK, USA / desktop
CopperLeaf C55 Asset-intensive industries / planning, budgeting, prioritization / Canada / web
CorasWorks PPM Gen., gov / project tracking & reporting / Microsoft Sharepoint app / USA
Cranes Software InventX™ ePM New prods. / statistical analytics, customizable, suite / India / onsite, web
Daptiv Daptiv PPM IT, HR / proj. & resource management, collaboration / Int'l / SaaS
Davies Consulting AIS™ Energy, healthcare / prioritization, client value functions / USA / onsite, web
Decision Lens Decision Lens Gen. / collaboration, custom rate-and-weight models, AHP / USA / onsite, web
Deltek PPM Solutions General, gov / proj. & resource management, compliance, suite / USA, UK / web
Digite SwiftALM IT / Scorecards, what-if analysis / USA, India / SaaS
D-Sight D-Sight Gen. / group dec-mkg., multi-crit., collab., PROMETHEE / Belgium / desk, web
Eclipse Eclipse PPM General / res. management, prioritization based on objectives / USA / SaaS
EcoSys EPC General / cost mgmt., project controls, integration platform/ USA / web
Enrich EPS Pharma, bio, high-tech / prioritization, cust. models / USA / onsite, SaaS
EPM Live PortfolioEngine Gen. / planing, demand mgmt., alignmnt., MS SharePoint / USA / onsite, SaaS
Exepron® Multi-Project Portfolio Gen. / Multi-project mngmnt., scheduling, maximizing throughput / USA / SaaS
Expert Choice® Comparion™ Suite General / collaboration, scoring, AHP, suite / USA / standalone, SaaS
Genius Project Genius Project IT, new prods., prof. services / planning & execution, suite / Int'l / onsite, SaaS
GenSight Gensight® PPM Various / stage-gate, scalable, alignment / genetic algorithms / UK, USA / web
Glomark-Governan GeniusCompare/Optimizer™ Tech buyers / bus. case preparation, prioritization / USA, Mexico / standalone
HP Software PPM Center IT / project & resource management, alignment, suite / Int'l / onsite, SaaS
IBM Rational Focal Point IT / proj. & res. mngmnt., ALM, benefit scoring, suite / Int'l / onsite, SaaS
i-lign i-lign Gen. / proj. & resource mngmnt., alignment / New Zealand / Java, web, SaaS
InfoHarvest Criterium DecisionPlus® General / multi-criteria decision software, custom models / USA / desktop
Innotas PPM Solution IT / governance; resource, financial & time mngmnt., alignment / USA /SaaS
InVizion InVizionAnalyzer/Viewer Gen. / what-if anal., custom app., complements Oracle P6 / USA / onsite
iPlanWare TeamWorks IT, prof. services, R&D / project, time & resource management / UK / SaaS
KeyedInSolutions KeyedInProjects General / project visibility, scoring, scalable, suite / USA / SAAS
Logical Decisions® LDW Portfolio General / budgeting, prioritization, custom MCDA models / USA / desktop
Lucernex Lx Projects Retail, construction / site selection, budgeting, bid management / USA / web
Lumina Analytica General / custom models, analysis, optimization / USA / desktop, onsite
MaestroTec Maestro-PPM Prof services, IT / proj. & engagement management, suite / USA / onsite, SaaS
Make It Rational Make It Rational General / collaborative ranking and decision making, AHP / Europe / SaaS
Microsoft PPM Gen., IT / proj. & resource mngmnt., alignment, AHP, suite / Int'l / onsite, web
OneDesk OneDesk PPM New products / Multi-project management, project planning / Canada / SaaS
Onepoint Software Project Enterprise Manufacturing / proj, & res. mngmt. / open source / Austria, USA / onsite, SaaS
Oracle Crystal Ball® General / risk analysis, simulation & opt., custom tools / Int'l / spreadsheet
Oracle E-Business E-Business Suite Gen. / resource, cust. relationship & supply chain mngmnt., suite / Int'l / web
Oracle Fusion Fusion PPM IT / collaboration, multi project management, suite / Int'l / web
Oracle Instantis Instantis Enterprise IT / proj. & res. mngmt. / Int'l / web
Oracle JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Gen., gov., mid-sized firms / lifecycle; multi proj. mngmnt., billing / Int'l / web
Oracle PeopleSoft PeopleSoft PPM Prof. services, general / templates, project versions / Int'l / onsite, web
Oracle Primavera Primavera Enterprise PPM Gen, construction / accounting, planning, resource mgmt. / Int'l / onsite, web
ORbee Consulting Portfolio Optimizer/Simulator Drug devpmt / port. opt., risk simulatio, decision trees / US / onsite
Palisade Decision Tools Suite R&D, gen. / decision & risk modeling, cust. optimization tools / Int'l / Excel
Parm myPARM Gen. / scorecards, resourcce & risk mngmt / suite / Switzerland / onsite, web
PIEmatrix Pie Gen. / Multi-proj. mgmt., direct assgmnt. of priorities; dashboard / USA / SaaS
Planisware Planisware 5 New prods, IT, pharma, aero & defense / balance, algnmnt. / Int'l / onsite, SaaS
Planview Enterprise™ IT, new prods. / proj. & resource management, collaboration, suite / Int'l / web
Planta Planta Portfolio Gen./ mid. to large orgs. / process based, res. mngmt. / Europe / web
Portfolio Decisions Customized software General / consulting, process improvement, custom tools / USA / onsite
Portfolio Decisionware PDWare™ Gen., small firms / demand & capacity mngmnt., time tracking / USA / onsite
Post Vision Technology PPO™ Prof. services / collaboration, multi-project & res. mgmt. / South Africa / SaaS
PowerSteering Enterprise IT, new products. / proj. management, res. utilization, alignment / USA / SaaS
Project Insight Project Insight General / project management, scorecard prioritization / USA / onsite, SaaS
Project InVision InVision 2012 IT, prof. serv. / proj. & res. mgmt., alignmnt. / USA, UK, Mexico / onsite, SaaS
Project.net Project.net General / scorecards, reporting, social networking, open source / USA / web
Project Objects Project Objecta IT, new prods. / strat. algnmnt., suite / Ireland, UK, Italy, India, Brazil / web, SaaS
Projectplace Projectplace Gen. / collaboration, proj. planning, doc. mgmt. / Europe, India / SaaS, plug-in
Project Portfolio Office Project Portfolio Office Gen. / multi-proj, res. mgmt., planning, time cards, scoring / South Africa/ SaaS
ProModel EPS Gen. / proj. selctn., res. cap. plan., risk forecstng., cust. models / USA / web
ProSymmetry Tempus Decisionware™ General / resource planning, risk minimization / USA / onsite, SaaS
Psoda Limited Psoda IT, testing, new prods. / proj. mngmnt., scoring / modular / New Zealand / SaaS
PwC PPO General / optimization, multi-attribute utility analysis, custom models / USA/ web
Refaktors Omnirocket Gen., small firms / visual overview, rate & weight, risk mgmt. / Denmark / SaaS
SAP® Port. & Proj. Management R&D, engineering / lifecycle management, alignment, suite / Int'l / onsite
Saviom Software Saviom Project Management Gen. / program, resource, proj. & time management / Australia, India / onsite
Sciforma Sciforma 7 Gen. / proj. management, scheduling, collaboration / USA / SaaS, onsite
Siemens PLM R&D / portfolio & program mngmnt, prod. lifecylcle, ideation / USA / onsite
Semanticspace PPM Studio IT, gen. / proj. & resource mgmt., suite / Int'l / desktop, onsite, SaaS
Sentient PPM Airlines, mfg., mining / port. program mngmnt., suite / Au., Anz. / onsite or SaaS
ServicdeNow ServiceNow PPM IT / proj. visibility, cost & res. mngmnt, custom apps. / USA, Brazil / onsite
Smart Org Portfolio Navigator™ R&D, new prods. / simulation custm. value models, risk anal. / USA, UK / web
Sopheon Accolade™ New prods. / roadmapping, simulation, strategic alignment / Int'l / web
Spectral Solutions Element PPM General / real time proj. & port. mngmt., prioritize by investment metric / NZ / web
Stand by Soft RationalPlan Multi Project General, small firms / multi-project & resource management / Romania / SaaS
Syncopation Software DPL Portfolio Gen. / decision trees, influence diagrams, portfolio optimization / USA / desktop
SumOpti SumOpti R&D, contractor projs. / optimization, throughput solns. / USA / onsite or SaaS
TeamDynamix TDPortfolio Planning Gov., colleges, construction / proj. management / USA / onsite, web
Tenrox Tenrox Gen. / time & cost management, proj. execution, suite / Int'l / SaaS
Transparent Choice TransparentChoice Gen. / collaborative dec. making, prioritization, AHP / Germany / SaaS
UMS Group POP© Utilities / asset mgmt., optimization, custom models / Int'l / spreadsheet apps
UMT Project Essentials Gen. / proj. fin., optimization, integrates w/ Microsoft Proj Server / USA / onsite
Unanet Project Portfolio Prof. servs., schools / proj., time & expense mgmt., suite / USA / onsite, SaaS
Unit 4 Agresso Gen. / res., payroll, proj. & procurement mgmt., suite / Netherlands / web
Upland Eclipse Gen., IT, healthcare / Simple, flexible, scalable; low cost / USA / web
Vanguard Software Business Analytics Suite™ Gen. / decision modeling, optimization / suite / USA / desktop
VCSonline VPMi General / project & resource management, scoring / USA / SaaS

The information in the table is intended only to provide starting points for further inquiry. In the "Focus" column, I've attempted to indicate main target industries and application areas, features that the supplier emphasizes, structural characteristics (e.g., suite), provider location, and delivery modes (e.g., desktop, onsite, web-based, SaaS). At best, the information is useful for initial screening only. The tools differ in so many dimensions that it is impossible to fairly summarize distinguishing characteristics in just a few words. For example (as explained in Part 2), a tool may address a select few or nearly every task encountered in a large, project-based organization. A given tool might recommend projects using sophisticated portfolio optimization routines and models designed for a specific industry or particular types of projects. Or, it may merely rank projects based on a simplistic scoring method chosen by the vendor as a lowest-common denominator applicable to the widest possible customer set.

Use the links in my table to obtain up-to-date information about how providers distinguish their tools. (Please let me know if you find links that no longer work, or if you are aware of any PPM tools with project prioritization capabilities that are not on my list.) Product updates are announced almost weekly, and software capabilities can change significantly as new versions are introduced. Competition is fierce, and suppliers drop products or go out of business. Others are being acquired by larger companies. Oracle, for example, has purchased several PPM vendors and has yet to fully integrate the products or provide a comparative roadmap for customers.

Tool Lifecycle

For the purpose of evaluating tools, it is helpful to understand the typical lifecycle of a successful tool, as available tools will range from "bleeding edge" to nearly obsolete. Francois Retief [3] provides a helpful characterization, from which the following is derived:

To compete successfully within the established PPM market, a new tool needs to provide some significant new idea or capability. When first released, the tool will have basic capability and a few defects. If the tool is initially successful, the supplier will gradually add capabilities requested by users. But, not all users will want or need the additional features. Also, the new features will complicate the product and likely produce additional defects. As the design becomes more feature-laden, it will become more complex, contain more defects, and become increasingly difficult to modify in any significant way. Eventually, the feature-rich product will stop selling because it can't be made to incorporate the next new idea.

Try to ascertain where a tool that captures your interest is within its lifecycle, and be wary of mature, feature-rich tools laden with capabilities that are not very important to you.

Obtaining Information

Tool providers are eager to pitch their products. Be prepared to be impressed. Modern PPM tools are graphically rich, with bubble diagrams, portfolio mappings, tornado diagrams, ranking curves, organ pipe charts, and other colorful plots. But, don't be persuaded solely by pretty colors and sexy displays. You will need to do your homework to decide whether there is sufficient content behind the attractive cover.

Be skeptical. Many companies describe themselves as the "leading provider" of PPM software. As one vendor told me, "We would never tell a prospective customer that someone else has a better tool for their application."

Importantly, it is often difficult to determine from websites and marketing materials (and even proposals submitted in response to RFP's) what capabilities the tool has for portfolio optimization. Despite what is claimed in marketing materials, many packages advertised as supporting portfolio management actually have little or no functionality for identifying value-maximizing project portfolios.

Before purchasing a PPM software product, learn more about how to compare and evaluate PPM tools. In addition to reading the remaining parts of this paper, you might want to take a look at my paper containing detailed criteria for evaluating PPM tools and its accompanying free spreadsheet for doing tool comparisons.

The Bottom Line

For those of you who can't afford the time to read through the remaining parts of this paper, here is the bottom line. There is no one PPM tool that is best for every organization. Available tools differ greatly in what they do and how well they do it. No single tool does everything really well. Also, and most importantly, the right tool depends on you — the nature of your business, your needs, the kinds of projects you conduct, the maturity of your existing processes and associated tools, your culture and politics, and the degree of rigor that you want and can realistically bring to your decision-making processes. I can't tell you which single tool will work best (or even work at all) for your situation. However, the path to finding that tool is here.


"Developers of PPM tools see their solutions as borrowing from the financial investment world. However, other than using the word "portfolio", few can point to any specific portfolio optimization methods implemented in their tools."

— Wikipedia [6]

For many vendors, selling PPM software involves a bit of bait and switch. The bait is the ability to make project choices that maximize the value of the project portfolio. The switch is to a tool that facilitates multi-project management, not portfolio optimization. Such tools are capable of collecting and reporting information conveying the status of projects in the project portfolio, and, quite often, they also provide features to support related tasks such as the tracking and assignment of resources, time and expenditure reporting, and communication and collaboration. However, such tools rarely offer credible capability for valuing projects or optimizing project decisions.

In truth, you don't need an expensive, feature-laden piece of software to implement a model that uses best-practice methods for valuing and prioritizing projects (you can do it with Excel). What you do need is a tool that can evaluate project proposals based on estimating the value to the business of the outcomes that would be produced by the decision to conduct those projects. I teach courses on how to do this. You can read about the applicable methods, starting here.

Many tools prioritize projects based on "strategic alignment." However, in most organizations, most projects don't get proposed because they are aligned with strategy; instead, projects get proposed because someone thinks they will produce results that are needed and valuable to the organization. If a strategically aligned project doesn't produce useful outcomes, it is not a good use of scarce resources. It may be easy for vendors to allow users to assign subjective alignment scores to projects, but such scores have little if anything to do with project value.

The reality about PPM that most software vendors don't want you to hear is that the necessary model for valuing projects needs to be different for different customers because what customers need from their projects to be successful differs, even for similar organizations within the same industry. It is often not profitable nor technically feasible for big PPM vendors to deliver large, multi-project management tools with the customer-specific models that would enable organizations to optimize their project portfolios based on value.

The reality about PPM that many PPM customers don't want to hear is that, to obtain a tool that reasonably prioritizes projects, the customer needs to think hard about what the business needs and the specific ways that proposed projects address those needs. Effective but practical project performance measures need to be defined, and the metrics that work for one organization often won't work for another. Importantly, the value of a project cannot be estimated without understanding the willingness of the organization to make tradeoffs, including its risk tolerance. The customer must then devote necessary effort to working with the software supplier to obtain a model that is capable of capturing the appropriate sources of project value.

Fortunately, for both PPM vendors and PPM users, it is not essential that a tool include accurate algorithms for valuing projects and optimizing the project portfolio in order for that tool to be useful. Experience shows that collecting and making project information easily accessible can provide considerable benefit to any organization that needs to take better control of the work it is performing. Likewise, a project prioritization tool does not need to provide real-time project reporting and support a broad spectrum of project-related activities to be useful. A focused tool that improves project selection decisions can be of considerable value to an organization that finds it difficult to determine which of too many project proposals ought to be killed or delayed. You can benefit from acquiring a quality tool that supports multi-project management or from a quality tool that identifies value-maximizing project decisions.

Among the important questions that you must answer in order to choose the best PPM tool for your organization is whether your organization needs most urgently to improve its ability to select the right projects or its ability to collect, manage, and communicate basic information about the projects it conducts and the resources that are utilized. If you need to do both, you can look for a tool that does both, or acquire both types of tools. Just don't make the mistake of choosing projects based on the recommendations of a PPM tool that lacks the analytics for quantifying project value.

The remaining parts of this paper provide more understanding for choosing a PPM tool, beginning with Part 2, which describes the key differences among currently available PPM tools.


  1. An early version of this paper was published under the title "Tools for Prioritizing Projects and Selecting Project Portfolios" in the Proceedings of the First Annual Power Delivery Asset Management Workshop, New York, June 3-5, 2003.
  2. Rachel Burger,"5 of the Best Project Portfolio Management Software According to Reviews," Project Management, October 19, 2015.
  3. Francois Retief, "Modern Project Portfolio Management Software," Management Planning Systems, 2005. Retief, in turn, cites Morendil, "Incipient(Thoughts)", Laurent Bossavit's web log, posted by Morendil at July 24, 2003.
  4. Lewis Cardin, "SaaS-Based Tools Lower Barriers to PPM Success," Forrester, April 2008.
  5. Anirban Dutta, "A Guide to Successful PPM Implementation," IBM, January 2006.
  6. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, "Project Portfolio Management," March 2008.
  7. Johnathan Feldman, "PPM Gets Your Projects In Line," Information Week, March 6, 2010.
  8. Dan Ariely, "Column: What Was the Question?" Harvard Business Review, September 2011.